کتاب پنلوپیاد

اثر مارگارت آتوود از انتشارات نشر نی - مترجم: طهورا آیتی-داستان تاریخی

در روایت هومر از اودیسه، پِنِلوپه ــ  زن اودوسِئوس و دخترعموی هلن زیبای ترواــ زنی ذاتاً وفادار به تصویر کشیده شده و طی سالیان قصه‌ی او درسی عبرت‌آموز بوده است. پِنِلوپه که در زمان رفتن اودوسِئوس به جنگ تروا پس از ربوده‌شدن هلن بیست سال تنها می‌ماند، به‌رغم شایعات درباره‌ی رسوایی‌اش گلیم خود را از آب بیرون می‌کشد؛ او هم‌زمان هم سلطنت ایتاکا را حفظ می‌کند هم پسر سربه‌هوایش را بزرگ می‌کند و هم صدها خواستگارش را پس می‌زند. هنگامی که اودوسِئوس بالاخره پس از تحمل مشقت‌های بسیار ــ  مغلوب‌کردن هیولاها و هم‌خوابگی با ایزدبانوان‌ــ به خانه بازمی‌گردد خواستگارهای او و ــ  به‌طرز عجیبی‌ــ دوازده تن از ندیمگان او را می‌کشد.
مارگارت اتوود چرخشی جدید و بدیع به این قصه‌ی باستانی می‌دهد و تصمیم می‌گیرد روایت را به پِنِلوپه و دوازده ندیمه‌ی سربه‌دارش بسپارد و بپرسد: »چه شد که ندیمگان به ‌دار آویخته شدند و پِنِلوپه واقعاً چه کرد؟» در بازگویی درخشان و بازیگوشانه ی اتوود، این قصه همان‌قدر خردمندانه و مشفقانه است که به‌یادماندنی و همان‌قدر سرگرم‌کننده است که تشویش‌برانگیز.
او با ذوق و لطافت طبع از قصه‌گویی و استعداد شاعری که خود به آن مشهور است بهره می‌جوید، به پِنِلوپه زندگی و واقعیتی تازه می‌بخشد و پاسخی برای یک معمای باستانی پیش رو می‌نهد.
اساطیر قصه‌هایی جهانی و بی‌زمان‌اند که زندگی ما را منعکس می‌کنند و شکل می‌دهند ــ آن‌ها به آرزوها، بیم‌ها و شور و شوق‌های ما می‌پردازند و روایت‌هایی پدید می‌آورند که معنای انسان‌بودن را به ما یادآوری می‌کند.


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3**
@We had no voice,
We had no name,
We had no choice,
We had one face,
One face the [email protected]

This book focuses on the story of Penelope and the twelve maids immortalised in myth by the story of Odysseus. This is told from Penelopes point of view as she wonders through the underworld, looking back on events that had taken place in her life.

Penelope in this book is fiercely intelligent, cunning and much more than just the devoted wife as portrayed in Homers- The Odyssey. It goes through her life as a young girl sent away to the Island of Ithaca, married to the stranger Odysseus.
It describes her struggles with trying to find her place in Ithaca and conflicts with the overbearing Eurycleia.

When news comes of the war in Troy, Odysseus sets out on his journey. What is largely ignored in literature is the story of Penelope as she awaits her husbands returns. Margaret Atwood fills in these gaps spectacularly.
She shows how Penelope becomes in charge of Ithaca as Odysseus is away, how she deals with the burden of Telemachus, her spoiled son, how the suitors try to gain her hand in marriage and refuse to go away and, of course, the story and relationship she has with her maids. The plot describes Penelopes struggles with being alone for 20 years with only the songs of travellers to inform her of Odysseus adventures. She forever remains faithful to her husband, despite learning of his sexual encounters with Goddesses.
It is fantastic to see the story of Penelope- a cunning and intelligent woman, brought to light.

As already known, the story of the maids ends tragically. Atwood does a brilliant job of describing their side of the story. She does this through poems, chorus and a modern court scene at the end of the book. The maids are described as beautiful and dutiful to Penelope. They are Penelopes faithful allies in informing the Queen of what the suitors intend to do and what they say behind closed doors. It is most likely that these women were raped by the suitors rather than consenting my their own admission. It is refreshing that Margaret Atwood addresses this hidden voice and story of the maids, rather than sticking to the classic version of the women merely just throwing themselves at the suitors.

Overall this was a really easy and simple read- I was able to breeze through the book as it is only under 200 pages. Despite the shortness of this book, Margaret Atwood includes gods, goddesses and creatures from the beloved Greek myths, as well as addressing the importance of the story of Penelope as a character and her maids.

@Under the thumbs of women, who as usual were being overemotional and showing no reasonableness and [email protected]
@ I had not been attempting to catch men like flies: on the contrary, Id merely been trying to avoid entanglement [email protected]

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Tip; If you arent familiar with (or have forgotten) this Greek myth dont read the introduction to this novel as it contains spoilers. I love the Greek myths (I must have mean streak!) but I had forgotten some of this. I would rather of been taken by surprise.

A clever idea to feminise one of the most famous of these legends, but the start had some lazy writing;

Where shall I begin? There are only two choices: at the beginning or not at the beginning.


There is also that unfortunate whiff you get from Atwood sometimes that she thinks she is cleverer than everyone else!

But this tale does improve, it did make me think & reread to make sure I had got all the important points.

In spite of my 4★ rating I would classify this as an important Atwood - very close to an essential one.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Το να γράψει κάποιος την οδύσσεια από την πλευρά της Πηνελόπης είναι σίγουρα μια πολύ καλή και έξυπνη ιδέα. Το βρήκα καλό, ανάλαφρο και σίγουρα πολύ μικρό. Δεν ξέρω αν έκανε έρευνα η συγγραφέας για να το γράψει ή αν αρκέστηκε μόνο στην Οδύσσεια, μου φάνηκε περιληπτικό και θα το ήθελα πιο μεγάλο, είναι τόσο αραιογραμμένο και τόσο λίγο που μέχρι να μπω στο κλίμα το είχα κιόλας τελειώσει. Πάντως μου άρεσε.

BRACE 2018: Ένα βιβλίο συγγραφέα που ήταν 60+ όταν το έγραψε

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Im a sucker for Odysseus, as many of you know (once I finish gawains daughter, Im planning on writing the Telemakhiad, for example), so I appreciate that this doesnt make him a villian, a wife-beater or somesuch.

There are some excellent moments -- the opening line is brilliant (Now that Im dead I know everything); and the wordplay throughout is superb; the gilded blood pudding simile (trust me, its good); the relationship between the maids and Telemakhos (although she doesnt expand upon it, which is fine, because I will); and my favorite, the post-sex story-telling, from Homer, when Penelope points out that they were both @proficent and shameless liars of long standing. Its a wonder either one of use believed a word the other said. But we did. Or so we told each [email protected]

But these are only moments. The writing throughout is smooth, eminently readable -- Atwood is skilled at turning a phrase and leading the reader though -- and so its difficult to respond to the novel during, only in the gaps and afterward. The interjections by the twelve murdered maids are amusing, but theyre not woven into the narrative fluidly, and thats where I found myself realizing the flaws of the novel.

For one, Atwood relies almost completely on Gravess The White Goddess for her lunar/matriarchial imagery which...Im not sure how much shes relying on her readers ignorance, because lord knows Gravess absurd theses have become popular mythology, but it makes me instantly discount her ideas on the relationship of Penelope and the maids, which is not good, because much of her reimagining of Homer is based on that -- she never pushes Penelopes character much beyond the Penelope of The Odyssey, which, to be fair, is hard to do, given that its one of the subtlest portraits of a woman ever. She changes Telemakhos, amusingly, very plausibly, but doesnt do much with the new character beyond use him as a way of modernizing the characters.

And that modernization -- the references to the centuries that Penelopes watched from Hades, the teenagerization, so to speak, of Telemakhos -- isnt handled very well. She doesnt do anything with it. It doesnt deepen her characters, it doesnt develop into a theme, it just sort of shows off.

Its fun, a decent hours reading, but I dont think its really worth much more than a cursory re-read. Once you notice the flaws, you cant stop noticing them, and its not a good enough piece to make the flaws worth enduring.



مشاهده لینک اصلی
The Penelopiad is another installment of the Canongate Myths Series.

In this installment, Margaret Atwood turns her hand to the story of Odysseus and tells the story of The Odyssey and The Iliad from the perspective of Penelope, Odysseus wife.

If you have ever wondered what it would be like to read an Atwood version of Homers anthem to heroism, it was fun. I read this whilst waiting at the garage. Apparently, my chuckling along persuaded the elderly gentleman next to me to co-read while waiting for our cars to be ready.

My favourite chapter had the title @Helen Ruins My [email protected], which was of course about Helen of Troy being a total tramp and running off with Paris, which in turn caused Odysseus to leave Penelope and join the war against Troy.

@Ive often wondered whether, if Helen hadnt been so puffed up with vanity, we might all have been spared the sufferings and sorrows she brought down on our heads by her selfishness and her deranged lust. Why couldnt she have led a normal life? But no - normal lives were boring, and Helen was ambitious. She wanted to make a name for herself. She longed to stand out from the [email protected]

Anyway it was an entertaining read and - as usual for Atwood - emphasised a few new perspectives on an old classic.

@Its surprising how many women there are in the Odyssey and they all help Odysseus, which is why I made him so charming. Hes the kind of guy women like - he has a lovely voice, he takes an interest in them, he understands human nature. Thats why hes so persuasive: he doesnt get his way by force, hes not a thug. He was fun to be around. Thats why Penelope is sad hes not there. Hes helped by women at every turn: by Helen in The Iliad, and by all the goddesses he meets along the way in the Odyssey. And then theres Penelope holding the fort while hes away. Thats the kind of guy he [email protected]

(Margaret Atwood interviewed in The Guardian, 26. Oct. 2005)

مشاهده لینک اصلی
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