کتاب بینوایان

اثر ویکتور هوگو از انتشارات هرمس - مترجم: محمدرضا پارسایار-داستان تاریخی

تا زمانی که به سبب قوانین و رسوم عذابی اجتماعی پدید آید که در اوج تمدن دوزخ­هایی بیافریند و تقدیر الاهی را با مصیبتی انسان بیالاید؛ تا زنانی که سه گرفتاری زمانه-سقوط مرد به دلیل رنجبری تباهی زن به دلیل گرسنگی نزاری کودک به دلیل ناآگاهی از میان نرفته باشد؛ تا زمانی که در سرزمینی اختناق اجتماعی امکان­پذیر باشد یا به بیان دیگر و از دیدگاهی گسترده­تر تا زمانی که در زمین نادانی و بینوایی باشد کتاب­هایی از این دست بی­فایده نخواهند بود.یقین دارم که این کتاب اگر یکی از مهم­ترین آثار جهان نباشد مهم­ترین اثر من است.ویکتورهوگو آثار ویکتور هوگو از غنای واژگانی بسیاری برخوردارند و شاید اگر در زمینه نگارش فرهنگ­های فرانسه تجربه نداشتم نمی­توانستم دشواری­های ترجمه بینوایان را از سر راه بردارم و متنی چنان روان و یکدست عرضه کنم که همچون متن فرانسه­اش تاثیرگذار باشد.


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Άργησα αλλα ήρθα. Άκουγα λοιπόν για τους Άθλιους, ότι είναι ένα εξαιρετικό έργο. Ένα αριστούργημα, που δεν μπορείς να βρεις ψεγάδι παρόλο που έχουν περάσει κοντά στους 2 αιώνες από τη συγγραφή του. Κι επειδή γενικά επικρατεί αυτή η άποψη, είχα ένα φόβο μήπως δε μου τραβήξει το ενδιαφέρον και ήμουν εγώ τελικά η παράξενη. Αλλά είναι όντως υπέροχο. Με όλη τη σημασία αυτής της λέξης. Στο οπισθόφυλλο της έκδοσης που έχω, γράφει λόγια του Ουγκώ: «... Οι Άθλιοι γράφτηκαν για όλα τα έθνη. Δεν ξέρω αν θα διαβαστούν απ όλους, όμως εγώ για όλους τους έγραψα.» Και ναι, θα διαβάζεται απ όλα τα έθνη, για όσα χρόνια θα υπάρχουμε. Δεν είναι καθόλου υπερβολή. Κατάφερε να γράψει κάτι, το οποίο δεν μπορεί να το κουνήσει από τη θέση της κορυφής, κανένας εκσυγχρονισμός, καμία τεχνολογία. Ουδείς!!
Θα μπορούσα να πω πολλά, μα δεν θα το κάνω. Τίποτα απ όσα θα πω ή θα γράψω, εγώ ή οποιοσδήποτε άλλος, δε θα σας δώσει να καταλάβετε τι εστί στην πραγματικότητα αυτό το βιβλίο. Ότι κι αν πει κανείς είναι λίγο -μα και πολύ συγχρόνως. Απολαύστε το, χαθείτε, ταξιδέψτε.
Με λίγα λόγια, μου άρεσε πολύ το γεγονός ότι ξεδιπλώνονται και σκιαγραφούνται πολλοί χαρακτήρες μαζί, δίχως να δίνεται λίγοτερη σημασία σε κάποιον. Όλοι οι χαρακτήρες έχουν το δικό τους μέρος στην όλη υπόθεση. Τα συναισθήματα που σου προκαλούν είναι έντονα, δεν υπάρχει πουθενά μετριότητα. Είτε θα τους αγαπήσεις είτε θα τους αντιπαθήσεις. O κεντρικός χαρακτήρας του Γιάννη Αγιάννη είναι αρκετά ωραιοποιημένος, ώστε να μην μπορείς παρά να τον αγαπήσεις. Τόσο ωραιοποιημένος όμως, σε σημείο να φαίνεται «φανταστικος». Δίνει τα πάντα σε όλους. Το τι παίρνει είναι άλλη ιστορία, θα το δείτε άλλωστε διαβάζοντας το. Αλλά δυστυχώς, ζούμε σε μια εποχή που αληθεύουν όσα γράφει. Τι κι αν κάνεις το καλό; Θα υπάρξει κάποιο @σφάλμα@ σου, που θα το υπονομεύσει. Ακόμη, μέσα στην υπόθεση, συνδυάζονται με πολύ ωραίο τρόπο, δίχως να κουράζουν, πραγματικά γεγονότα της εποχής.
Βασικά, δε θα γράψω τίποτα άλλο. Ετοιμαζόμουν να γράψω και για τους άλλους χαρακτήρες αλλά δε θα το κάνω, νιώστε γι αυτούς όλα τα συναισθήματα χωρίς προκαταλήψεις. Να αγαπήσετε, να μισήσετε, να συμπαθήσετε και να αντιπαθήσετε με όλο σας το είναι. Οργή, λαχτάρα, χαρά, θλίψη. Μεγάλη γκάμα συναισθημάτων. Ελπίδα και απογοήτευση. Θα κλείσω με μια φράση: από τα λίγα βιβλία που ταιριάζει ΑΠΟΛΥΤΑ ο τίτλος του και από τα λίγα βιβλία που όσο αγάπησα χαρακτήρες, τόσο αντιπάθησα άλλους, μαζί και τους ανθρώπους.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
A classic among classics.

Id been meaning to read this ever since... what, the 80s? Okay. So Im a bit late. No Andrew Lloyd Webber, either. And what a beast this novel is! Almost 1500 pages, full of grand sweeping expositions on War from Napoleons exploits and downfall to the second French Revolution, diatribes on the language of convicts, the dealings of wine-houses, sewers, and no less than a dozen different social injustices of the time...

And yet, the horrible misery of the novel, some might say a grand depression from the outside and in for poor Jean Valjean, is rightfully a romance of epic proportions.

The misery isnt just his, of course. A wide tapestry of miserable creatures inhabits this novel. Some might say the miserable is all of France. Theyre all a mixture of the execrable and the divine. Full of heart and joy and committing suicide in the next breath. One might say that Paris was... perhaps is... bipolar. Manic and depressive.

As long as we go by the events and the backgrounds within these pages, of course.

Bigger than life and real for all that, this is probably one of those monsters of a novel that should be read and digested over a long period of time. Thats not to say its difficult to read at all. Its just long. So much happens its like enjoying a better rendition of Shakespeares King Henry the Sixth (in the entire) mixed with a milder Dostoyevskis Crime and Punishment, adding a comedic romance with a little of Dickens underworld horror shows, then topping it off with a dispassionate review of history with a massive side-order of satire.

Can we really pigeonhole this work?

No. Not really. It has wide swaths of everything.

And thats why it is a classic among classics.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Oh. Hugo. Damn you are wordy!

I mean, Charles Dickens can go on, but read Victor Hugo and you will come to appreciate Chucks brevity.


Such being the case, and a convent having happened to be on our road, it has been our duty to enter it. Why? Because the convent, which is common to the Orient as well as to the Occident, to antiquity as well as to modern times, to paganism, to Buddhism, to Mahometanism, as well as to Christianity, is one of the optical apparatuses applied by man to the Infinite.

This is not the place for enlarging disproportionately on certain ideas; nevertheless, while absolutely maintaining our reserves, our restrictions, and even our indignations, we must say that every time we encounter man in the Infinite, either well or ill understood, we feel ourselves overpowered with respect. There is, in the synagogue, in the mosque, in the pagoda, in the wigwam, a hideous side which we execrate, and a sublime side, which we adore. What a contemplation for the mind, and what endless food for thought, is the reverberation of God upon the human wall!


So that part above where Hugo says @This is not the place for enlarging disproportionately on certain [email protected]? He will go on to enlarge disproportionately on certain ideas for several chapters, because a convent happens to be on our road.

I mean, seriously, a disquisition on monasticism, and a history of the Parisian sewers, in the middle of chase scenes.

So, I finally finished this monster. I listened to it on CD. 60 hours, and I think I checked it out about eight times from the library because I just could not keep listening to it day after day. Hence it took me over six months to finish it. I think I need to throw myself a party or something for getting through it.

I know, you are recoiling in horror. Only 3 stars? For one of the greatest works in the history of literature?

Look, I rate things on two factors: how @[email protected] good I think they are, and how much I enjoyed them.

Now, I can sink into a big, long, wordy book. And I was actually hoping to like this one more, because I loved The Hunchback of Notre Dame, which a lot of people also think is wordy and dry. And which also meanders away from the plot for entire chapters for Hugo to show off his research and ramble.

But Les Mis... just did not connect with me for all that it is an epic tale of human pettiness, nobility, compassion, foolishness, spite, bravado, love, tragedy, and every other human emotion, virtuous and base, on display. Possibly because at times I felt like the characters were too much puppets who were there to act out Victor Hugos themes, not enough actual flesh and blood people. And somehow, the wry, ironic humor I found in Notre Dame de Paris was missing in Les Miserables.

I will not bother to summarize the plot. Surely youve seen at least one of the umpteen film adaptations, if not the musical.

The plot, after all, contrary to what so many people who havent actually read the book think, is not about the French Revolution (either of them). No, its about a minor student uprising that was crushed futilely. Marius and his friends were the Occupy protesters of 1830s France, and did about as much good.

Oh, but its about so much more. Its about the power of the state, and the meaning of family, and whether men can change or are fixed in their natures. You cannot help but be moved by Jean Valjeans arc, and by Inspector Javert, a man so remorselessly, unbendingly straight that he literally cannot conceive of there being more than one correct action in any situation — this inability being ultimately the cause of his death. Forced to choose between justice and the law, which have been one and the same to him his entire life, his mind breaks.

The deaths of Éponine and Gavroche (who provided the only spot of humor in the book) were also genuinely tragic, the denouement of genuinely tragic lives, even more so than tragically disposable Fantine in the first part of the book.

So yes, there were parts that moved me.

And yet. And yet.

Jean Valjean was a plot puppet. Javert more so — he illustrated a moral principle more than a human soul. And dear god did I get tired of Hugo waxing on about beautiful, innocent, pure, perfect, virginal, indefatigable, sunny, delightful, naive, precious blessed little lamb Cosette. I mean, the kid spent the first few years of her life as a house-elf for the Thénardiers. Its gonna take more than a nunnery to undo all that.

Hugo was a genius with a social conscience. Of his own book he said:


So long as there shall exist, by reason of law and custom, a social condemnation, which, in the face of civilization, artificially creates hells on earth, and complicates a destiny that is divine with human fatality; so long as the three problems of the age—the degradation of man by poverty, the ruin of women by starvation, and the dwarfing of childhood by physical and spiritual night—are not solved; so long as, in certain regions, social asphyxia shall be possible; in other words, and from a yet more extended point of view, so long as ignorance and misery remain on earth, books like this cannot be useless.


And from the misery of the Cour de miracles slum to the brave futility of the anti-monarchist uprising to the brutal grinding wheels of justice that turned a man into a lifelong felon for stealing a loaf of bread, Hugo hammers his themes eloquently and grandly.

But. Gads did it grind on. And so... Im sorry. 3 stars. Definitely a book everyone should read before they die. But for me, once was enough.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Finalmente lho letto. Ora posso morire felice. Era uno degli ultimi classici a cui tenevo che dovevo ancora leggere. Non sarà facile scrivere una recensione, ma farò il possibile per trasmettere almeno ciò che ho provato durante la lettura e tutto il mio entusiasmo per questo capolavoro.

I miserabili è sostanzioso, è una lettura che dà grandi soddisfazioni grazie alla sua prosa meravigliosa, alle molte similitudini che mi lasciavano senza parole, alla caratterizzazione dettagliata dei personaggi, lo sguardo allanimo umano con le sue mille sfaccettature, la condizione del popolo, il contesto storico ecc.
In questo capolavoro cè tutto ciò che riguarda lessere umano, dal più abietto al santo: il tema della coscienza, del bene e del male, Dio, la giustizia e lingiustizia (sia umana che divina). Lintrospezione che Hugo fa dei suoi personaggi è talmente dettagliata che solo una persona acuta e sensibile avrebbe potuto descrivere i turbamenti o le gioie dellanima in questo modo; una persona che osserva il prossimo senza giudicare e che tenta di cogliere il minimo movimento dellanimo umano. La descrizione degli esami di coscienza che si fanno quasi tutti i personaggi è qualcosa di sublime. Attraverso losservazione dellessere umano cè una sguardo a 360 gradi sulla società e sulla storia francese di quel periodo e quello antecedente. Hugo analizza il periodo storico e la società attraverso i suoi personaggi, ma ciò che dice riguarda tutti gli esseri umani, non solo i francesi, perché sono temi universali e basilari che riguardano tutti, indipendentemente dalla nazionalità. Parla della condizione del popolo, dei più miserabili e dellingiustizia che dovevano subire; di come fosse colpa della società se non riuscivano a redimersi diventando persone oneste ma rimanevano per sempre marchiate dal segno dellinfamia. Bellissima la descrizione della differenza tra i poveri obbligati a rubare per fame e chi invece nella melma ci sguazza. Tutte le descrizioni sono stupende: linnamoramento di Marius e Cosette, i monelli, il vescovo...Hugo ha un vocabolario talmente ampio, una padronanza linguistica, una capacità descrittiva talmente ammirabile che nonostante la moltitudine di personaggi, e le mille o più pagine, non è mai ripetitivo nelle varie descrizione, né dei paesaggi, né delle emozioni, stati danimo, personalità dei personaggi e quantaltro.
Ci sono alcune parti più lente e noiose (la battaglia di Waterloo, la storia degli ordini monastici, lanalisi toponomastica di Parigi) ma alla fin fine le ho considerate come delle piccole stonature su cui sorvolare perché tutto il resto è perfetto.
Mi sono commossa fino alle lacrime più di una volta nonostante conoscessi già la trama grazie al musical del 2012. Ho iniziato il libro a dicembre, è stato con me per quasi due mesi, e sento già la mancanza dei personaggi. Mi mancherà Jean Valjean, Marius, il nonno di Marius e persino i Thénardier.


English

Im so glad that I finally have decided to read this book. It wont be easy to write a review, but at least I will do my best to say why I loved it so much. Les Misérables is substential and it is a satisfying read for many reasons: the wonderful prose, the similes that left me speechless for their beauty, the detailed characterization of the characters, the look into human soul with its thousand facets, the condition of the people, the historical context etc.
In this masterpiece there is everything about the human being, from the most vilent to the saint: the theme of consciousness, of good and evil, God, justice and injustice (both human and divine). The introspection that Hugo does of his characters is very detailed and only a sensitive and acute writer could have been able to describe this way the turmoils and the joys of a soul; a writer that observes without judging and that is able to catch also the slightest movement of the human soul. The self-examinations of the characters is divine. Through the examination of the human being there is also an overlook to society and the French historical period. What Hugo says can apply also to other societies, not only the French one, because the themes with which he deals are universal and fundamental, regardless of nationality. He talks about the conditions of the people, above all the poor, the miserables, and the injustices they had to endure; how it was societys fault if they were never able to redeem themselves. Theres a wonderful description of the difference between the honest poor that must steal in order to eat and the poor that love living in the mud and doing bad. The books is full of wonderful descriptions: the bishop, Marius love for Cosette, Paris brats...
Hugo has such a mastery of the language and a very deep descriptive skill that despite the many characters and many pages, he is never repetitive in the descriptions of the characters, the landscape, moods or feelings.
There are a few parts that I considered slow and a bit boring (the battle of Waterloo, the history of the monastic orders, the toponymy of Paris) but at the end they arent that bad and I considered them just @small [email protected] in a perfect whole.
I was moved to tears more than once even if I already knew the plot. I started this book in December and finished it after nearly two months. It has been with me for all this time and I already miss all the characters: Jean Valjean, Marius, Marius grandfather...also the Thénardier family!

مشاهده لینک اصلی
When both of my performing arts student kids say that their dream roles are ; respectively Connor - Javert and Caitlin - Eponine youd better believe I know the musical version, stage show and film of this masterpiece inside out. (Well come on people, Russell Crowe as Javert, in uniform, singing stars, whats not to like?) So it was always going to be a definite read for me someday, when I felt I had the time to devote to this huge tome

The book that started it all off was first published in 1862. Its known in certain circles as @The [email protected] and for very good reasons, my penguin cloth bound edition has 1232 pages! So it is a huge commitment when/if you decide to tackle it.

 The story is told from the perspective of an omniscient narrator who frequently addresses us directly about society, politics, war and even the Paris sewers!
His style is lyrical and empirical, he backs up his statements with the evidence.

In the first 60 pages I loved 2 of the characters, Monsieur Myriel aka Monsieur Bienvenu (welcome in French) and an old revolutionist, known only as G---- who lasted a mere 8 pages.
I laughed when the Bishop rode into town much to the shock of everyone, not in a bishoply carriage but on a donkey! (Well if it was good enough for Jesus.....)
The main character of our story though is Jean Valjean a convict who has spent 19 years in prison for stealing a loaf of bread to feed his sisters children, and numerous escape attempts added to his prison term . He is a nasty piece of work, but as the reader via Hugos commentary which lets us see that this criminal was made by the actions of society to a minor crime. He is not a bad man, he has been made bad.

The imagery described in the story is very powerful , for instance , as JVJ steals the bishops silver the shadows, the moon illuminating the sleeping figure of Bienvenu so as to make him look angelic. The epitome of good and bad , dark and light.

This is just the start and if Im not careful my review will be almost as long as the book!

There are some renowned (not in a good way) sections of the book where Hugo tells us in intricate detail about the battle of Waterloo, including the positioning of the armies, (like a game of risk) but it included some details about one of the important characters. And the part about the history of the sewers of Paris, which was a welcome relief for me because it came after the battle at the barricades which had me literally sobbing.

For those of you who like to know about the themes and motifs of a story.

There is the importance of love and compassion towards our fellow human beings, especially those less fortunate than ourselves.

Social injustice in 19th century France. The author repeatedly condemns the unjust class-based structure of nineteenth-century France, and shows how society’s structure turns good, innocent people into beggars and criminals.

The long term effects the French revolution on French society. He discusses the various insurrections and uprisings since that time. He is critical of all the regimes since that time and their inability to deal effectively with social injustice or eliminate France’s rigid class system.

Although it isnt a book for everyone, those that do read it will find the writing almost poetic at times and there are many quotes you will want write down like,
@Home is not a place its a [email protected]
and @Civil war? What does that mean? Is
there any foreign war? Isnt every war fought between men, between [email protected] or @There is always more misery in the lower classes than there is humanity in the [email protected]
Or @And you know Monsieur Marius, I believe I was a little in love with [email protected]

Im going to leave it at that now. Long reviews arent my thing really. And to go into the intricate details of this wonderful novel is beyond my ability.
I absolutely loved my time with this book, it has taken my number 1 spot for my best book of all time. And yes I cried.

Finally in the words of Victor Hugo.... @Another story must [email protected]

5 glorious shining stars.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
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